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Preparation and application of home made Jholmal-1 (liquid bio-fertilizer cum bio-pesticide) to control soil borne insect pests and increase soil fertility

About the Implementing organization

Name: Center for Environmental and Agricultural Policy Research, Extension and Development (CEAPRED)

Country: Nepal

Year of establishment: 1991

Type of organization: Legally recognized non-profit status


Jholmal -1 (bi-pesticide and bio-fertilizer) is prepared by mixing animal urine, animal dungs and water at 1:1: 1 ratio and fermented for 2-3 weeks. Application of this slurry product mixed with water @ 1:5 and its application at root zone of the plants at an interval of one week is effective to control the prevailing soil borne insect/pests affecting the vegetable and cereal crops and supplies required nutrients to the plants in sufficient amount. Its application has virtually eliminated the use of chemical pesticides and fertilizers leading to safe vegetable production in the village. Thus the practice has resulted to reduced exposure of the farmers to toxic chemicals used as insecticides/pesticides and reduced the use of chemical fertilizers contributing to the production of safe food ultimately leading to organic vegetable production in the village. Besides, farmers have been able to save the expenses occurred in purchasing chemical fertilizers and pesticides.

Nature Element


Type of Action

Protection / Restoration / Sustainable use / Mainstreaming into sectors / Access and benefit sharing / Pollution prevention, clean up / Awareness and education

Sustainable Development Element

Jobs and livelihoods / Food security / Water security / Disaster risk reduction / Health / Renewable energy / Climate action

Related Sustainable Development Goal(s)


Environmental Impacts

The resource base for preparation of Jholmal-1 is animal urine, animal dung and water which are locally available, Since farmers reduced the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, the demand for chemical fertilizers and pesticides has been decreased in the area, which is ultimately contribution to reduction in carbon emission. This has also helped in increasing the soil fertility naturally. Moreover, the efficient use of dung and urine has led to the improvement of animal shed for collection of manure and urine and discouraged the unscrupulous spreading of cattle manure thus contributing to reduction in carbon emission. It has also contributed for the cleanliness of the household surroundings and thus the overall environment of the village. This approach has also induced some positive changes in the farmers to conserve and promote local environment, produce, eat and sale safe food and thus contributing to the improvement of natural resource management.

Sustainable Development Impacts

The excessive use of chemical fertilizers has degraded the soil fertility there by reducing the productivity. The application of Jholmal -1, which is home made using the household resources has reduced the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, thus reducing the health hazards, increasing the soil natural fertility and reducing the expenses of the farmers on inputs. The application of bio-fertilizer (Jholmal-1) has significantly reduced the use of chemical fertilizers in the pilot sites. The recent purchase and sale data of the pilot sites has shown that the sales of chemical fertilizers has been reduced by 50% without affecting the crops yields. The collection of cattle urine in the plastic jars with cap and fermented in the sun reduced the losses of nitrogen, which ultimately would have been lost under the open system, thus the system improved soil fertility on the one hand but also contributed to the environment.


Because of the simple and affordable technology, Jholmal technology is not only adopted by 100% of the farmers in the RMV sites, it is upscaled in the neighboring villages of the Kavre district and replicated by other projects like HIMALICA project in Udayapur funded by EU, Building Community Enterprises project in Salyan funded by BMZ etc. Besides, the Vice Chairperson of the National Planning Commission of Nepal was highly impressed of the results of the intervention while visiting the RMV sites in Feb 2016, So, he included the concept in Nepal Government's regular program of FY 2073/74 to be piloted in 14 districts of Nepal and it is being implemented by Department of Environment.


The majority of the nepalese households practice agriculture and raise animals. Infestation of insect pests and diseases and scarcity of fertilizers is common problem all over Nepal. Therefore, all the farming households growing any types of the crops can prepare this product at home and any ordinary farmer can apply this climate friendly product successfully to fertilize the crops and control the soil borne insects. Thus,this simple and affordable technology is highly replicable.

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