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Preparation and application of home made Jholmal-3 (liquid bio-pesticide) to control insects pests and diseases of the crops

About the Implementing organization

Name: Center for Environmental and Agricultural Policy Research, Extension and Development (CEAPRED)

Country: Nepal

Year of establishment: 1991

Type of organization: Legally recognized non-profit status


Jholmal -3 (bio-pesticide) was prepared by mixing animal urine, water and leaves of native plants with repellent taste and/or odor at 1:1: 0.3 ratio and fermented for 3-4 weeks in a drum or plastic bag. Application (spraying) of this filtered solution after mixing with water @ 1:5 at weekly intervals on the crops has been found to be effective to control the prevailing major insect/pests and diseases affecting the vegetable and cereal crops. It was found that, with the application of Jholmal-3, the incidence of pests and diseases has been reduced significantly and the diseases like blight in potato, pests like aphids has been controlled effectively. It was found that with Jholmal-3, the use of red labelled chemical pesticides has been virtually eliminated in the villages leading to safe vegetable production. Thus the practice has resulted to reduced exposure of the farmers to toxic chemicals used as insecticides/pesticides and contributed to the production of safe food ultimately leading to organic vegetable production in the village. The approach is innovative as it is homemade, on locally available ingredients, safe to use, little expenses and produces safe food. It can be adopted by all farmers and can be used in all crops and works effectively against the major prevailing pests and diseases without any harmful effects. It has led to the systematic improvement in the production system for the small holder farmers to improve their farm production and income.

Nature Element

Forests / Mountains

Type of Action

Protection / Sustainable use / Mainstreaming into sectors / Access and benefit sharing / Pollution prevention, clean up / Awareness and education

Sustainable Development Element

Jobs and livelihoods / Food security / Water security / Disaster risk reduction / Health / Renewable energy / Climate action

Related Sustainable Development Goal(s)


Environmental Impacts

The resource base for preparation of Jholmal-3 is animal urine and locally available plant leaves, the most important positive environmental impact of the technology is the reduction on the use of chemical pesticides, which has beneficial effects on plant, animals and human health as well as the local environment. Improvement in the cowshed and utilization of urine and dung in a efficient manner has also contributed to reduce carbon emission, thus positively contributing to the local environment. Effective use of locally available plant resources for Jholmal-3 production will also contribute for local biodiversity conservation as farmers need leaves of the plants for Jholmal-3, so, they would be interested to plant and protect the useful plant species at their homestead thus, increasing the population of useful plants and greenery, ultimately contributing to the improvement of local biodiversity and environmental conservation.

Sustainable Development Impacts

The changing rainfall pattern and temperature has created favorable environment for the insects and diseases of the crops. On the other hand, safe food production is the most important sustainable development goal of the nation, for which, use of Jholmal-3 for the control of diseases and insects pests in vegetables and other cereal crops has been a contributory element for sustainable development. Replacement of chemical pesticides and insecticides with home made bio-insecticide/pesticide would be land mark achievement for the poor producers of Nepal, who can neither afford to purchase the chemical fertilizers, nor are knowledgeable for their safe and efficient application and withdrawal system. Hence, use of Jholmal-3 has reduced the risk of human health hazards, increased safe food production and increased income of farmers. It has also increased the capacity of the farmers to cope with the risks of climate vulnerabilities and make them resilient to climatic adversities.


Because of the simple and affordable and homemade technology, Jholmal technology is adopted by 100% of the farmers in the RMV sites, it has also been up scaled in the neighbouring villages of the Kavre district and replicated by other projects like HIMALICA in Udayapur funded by EU, Building Community Enterprises project in Salyan funded by BMZ etc. Besides, the visiting dignitaries Vice Chairperson of the National Planning Commission of Nepal, ICIMOD Director General, other national authorities were highly impressed of the results of the intervention while visiting the RMV sites in Feb 2016, So, he instructed the Government of Nepal authorities to include this concept in Nepal Government's regular program of FY 2073/74 to be piloted in 14 districts of Nepal, which is now being up scaled and implemented by the Department of Environment. Thus, there is high scope of its expansion at the national and international level after its scientific evaluation and standardization.


The majority of the Nepalese households practice crop/vegetable farming and raise animals in an integrated manner. Infestation of insect pests and diseases is common problem all over Nepal. Therefore, all the farming households are being affected by the losses caused by insect pests/ disease problem in their cereal and vegetable crops. Moreover, the use of chemical insecticide/pesticides has not been regulated properly and used by the farmers rationally. Hence, the risk less, safe, affordable and could be homemade technology possess all qualities for its replication at a wider scale and area. The most important feature of this technology is it is safe for application, easy to learn and use, based on locally available resources and knowledge and simple to use. Hence, this simple and affordable technology has all qualities of a highly replaceable technology for the small holder producers of Nepal and abroad.

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